Historically, Anafi was first settled by the Phoenicians and later by the Dorians. In the 5th century BC, it joined the Athenian League. During the middle ages, it became part of the duchy of Naxos and was ruled by several Venetian royal families. In 1537, it was subjugated by the Ottomans, after it had been ransacked by the pirate Barbarossa. It was liberated in 1830 by the treaty of London, along with the rest of the Cyclades.
According to mythology Anafi emerged from the Agean sea when the Argonauts begged Apollo - the god of light and music - to save them from the angry sea. To thank him, the Argonauts built a temple which can still be admired at the top of a hill at the south end of the island.
The old monastery of Panagia Kalamiotissa is built at the top of Kalamos -a high solid rock second only to Gibraltar - and from up there one can have a breathtaking view of the many other islands near Anafi. You can reach the temple by bus or boat, and the monastery on foot after a 30’ minute hike on a beautiful path.